• 5 ‘elements’:  earth, air, fire, water and spirit

  • Traditionally water is associated with the Platonic Solid the icosahedron

  • The icosahedron represents movement, flow and change. It has 20 sides, all of which are equilateral triangles.

  • 280 water molecules bonded together make up the shape of the icosahedron

Film maker and mystic ecologist David Sereda discussed some of the amazing properties of water– it may actually have memory and consciousness, he said. Human beings are mostly made up of water and he suggested that restructured water could have healing properties on their bodies.

Following up on the groundbreaking work of Masaru Emoto, Sereda exposed water to the sounds of the sun, and the water crystals changed to a beatific shape. A subject drank restructured water and their blood cells showed a healthy response, and prayer/intention directed at water can beneficially alter its structure, he detailed. Such water must be drank right away as the restructuring may be temporary, he added.

Could water itself be a kind of memory system, actually containing the Akashic Records?, Sereda pondered. He noted in addition to healing, structured water could potentially be useful in exploring nuclear fusion, reclaiming polluted areas, and developing “super sensors”– instantaneous signals that can be sent out into the galaxy.

Water is of paramount importance on Earth: we live on a water planet and our bodies are mostly water.  Human beings are made up largely of water in roughly the same percentage as water is to the surface of the earth. Our tissues and membranes, our brains and hearts, our sweat and tears – all reflect the same recipe for life, in which efficient use is made of those ingredients available on the surface of the earth. We are 23 percent carbon, 2.6 percent nitrogen, 1.4 percent calcium, 1.1 percent phosphorous, with tiny amounts of roughly three dozen other elements. But above all we are oxygen (61 percent) and hydrogen (10 percent), fused together in the unique molecular combination known as water, which makes up approximately 71 percent of the human body.  So when environmentalists assert that we are part of the earth, it is no mere rhetorical flourish.

Our blood even contains roughly the same percentage of salt as the ocean, where the first life- forms evolved. They eventually brought onto the land a self-contained store of the sea water to which we are still connected chemically and biologically. Little wonder, then, that water carries such great spiritual significance in most religions, from the water of Christian baptism to Hinduism’s sacred water of life.

In its purest form, water is odourless, almost colourless and tasteless. It is in your body, the food you eat and the beverages you drink. You use it to clean yourself, your clothes, your dishes, your car and everything else around you. You can travel on it or jump in it to cool off on hot summer days. Many of the products that you use every day contain it or were manufactured using it. All forms of life need it, and if they don’t get enough of it, they die. Political disputes have centred around it. In some places, it is treasured and incredibly difficult to get. In others, it’s incredibly easy to get and then squandered.

What substance is more necessary to our existence than any other?       Water.

At its most basic, water is a molecule with one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms, bonded together by shared electrons. It is V-shaped (with an angle of 105 degrees) and is charged positively near the hydrogen atoms and negatively near the oxygen atom. Water molecules are naturally attracted to and stick to each other because of this polarity, forming a hydrogen bond. This hydrogen bond is the reason behind many of water’s special properties, such as the fact that it’s denser in its liquid state than in its solid state (ice floats on water).

Water is the only substance that occurs naturally as a solid (ice), a liquid and a gas (water vapour).  It covers about 70 percent of the Earth for a total of approximately 332.5 million cubic miles (U.S. Geological Survey).  Most of this water – 97 percent of it – is undrinkable because it’s saltwater.  Only 3 percent of the world’s water supply is fresh water, and 77 percent of that is frozen. Of the 23 percent that is not frozen, only half a percent is available to supply every plant, animal and person on Earth with all the water they need to survive (National Geographic).

There ar­e a lot of things about water that scientists still don’t fully understand.  Water is the most studied material on Earth but it is remarkable to find that the science behind its behaviour and function are poorly understood (or even ignored), not only by people in general, but also by scientists working with it every day.

The small size of its molecule belies the complexity of its actions and its singular capabilities. Liquid water’s unique properties and chameleon-like nature seem to fit ideally into the requirements for life as can no other molecule.

Water Is Life
NASA, in its search for life on other planets, accepts without question that water is the first requirement. Without water, there can be no life as we know it. It’s clear, also, that where there is rain there is life, and that where rain does not fall, there is a desert.  Clearly, life here has evolved on a planet where two-thirds of the surface area is covered with water. We look out over our oceans, and water fills our view as far as the eye can see.  Our own bodies reflect a similar proportion.

Perhaps it is just because there is so much water in our reality that we have taken it for granted, thinking it is ‘only water’.  Long ago, however, water was considered of ‘primary’ importance: In fact, water plays the primary role in biblical Creation.

A Sacred View of Water
In its very first sentence, the book of Genesis states: “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was waste and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep: and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.”   These sentences deeply imply that early people believed that water was a prerequisite for life to begin on Earth.

Both the ancient Egyptians and the Christians linked water to spirituality and consciousness. Both used baptism with water to wash away sins and prepare the initiate for higher consciousness. In ancient times, the initiate was actually submerged in water.

The Druids of Europe and the Shintos of Japan believed that bodies of water, small and large, were openings to the inner worlds of the Earth, and thus considered them sacred and holy.

In fact, all over the ancient world water was looked upon as sacred. The Christians blessed themselves with holy water in the sign of the cross as they entered their churches. The Shintos washed their hands and arms up to the elbows with holy water to purify their spirits before entering the sacred places of nature that were their churches. Religious and native peoples worldwide use water to purify themselves before beginning religious ceremonies.

In recent times, it was discovered that the water molecule itself, with its angle of 105 degrees, was in the Golden Mean ratio, a basic proportion in Sacred Geometry. This proportion in itself implies that water has a special place in Creation.  In metaphysics, water represents the flow of the collective mind – the collective unconscious. It teaches us that our reality is forever changing.

Water in its primal form is a mirror to human consciousness and can be whatever the dreamer perceives. It is the medium that Consciousness forms to make the realities in which we all live. Water is Life itself. Without water, Earth would resemble Mars.

 A Scientific View

We all know a molecule of water chemically as H2O – two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. Sounds simple, doesn’t it?
But liquid water is much more complex than that and has several properties different from most other liquids.For example, a well-known anomaly of water is that its density is highest at four degrees Celsius above the freezing point. Thus, ice floats on water, whereas the solid state of other compounds would sink in their liquids.
Amongst its many properties, water can also absorb large amounts of heat before it begins to get hot, and it releases heat slowly during cooling. Otherwise, pools of water, from puddles to oceans, might boil during the day or freeze solid at night, regardless of the season.Water’s unique characteristics are directly related to its molecular structure and the ability of water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules.Most of us assume that if water was purified there would be nothing left but molecules of H2O.
This is absolutely not true. What modern scientists have discovered with their advanced instruments is that no matter how ‘pure’ it is, there are many different kinds of water.  Not all water is the same. A vast array of factors change water so that it exhibits different characteristics, varying according to the types of changes that have been made.
An example of these kinds of changes is what happens to water that has flowed through the pipes we use to distribute our municipal water supplies.  When it runs in streams, water naturally rotates in vortices. This vortex motion is what water ‘wants’ to do. As you see water move down the drain, you will notice that it naturally forms a rotating vortex, counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. This motion of water has vast implications for the ‘structure’ of the water itself.
The great scientist Viktor Schauberger was the first to demonstrate what happens to water when we pump it through pipes under pressure. Coming out of the ground, Schauberger said, water is ‘living’. It contains an extra electron in the outer ring, and it is the vortex of naturally moving water that creates this structure.  But when pushed through a pipe, although it wants to move in a vortex (as we can easily demonstrate for ourselves), water is forced into a circular motion, and this circular movement strips the outer electrons off the water molecule, creating what’s called ‘unstructured’ water.  It is still hydrogen and oxygen, but it lacks a specific electrical charge.Around 1990, a scientific study was conducted at the University of Georgia that demonstrated the role unstructured water plays in human disease.
This study showed that healthy cells are always surrounded by structured water (water with its outer electrons intact) and that diseased cells are always surrounded by unstructured water.As Schauberger pointed out decades before this study was done, surface water from lakes and municipal reservoirs is similarly unstructured.  And yet this kind of water, the kind that is associated with diseased tissue, is the basic water that human beings all over the world are drinking.  Even when we have access to well water, if we pump it up from the ground under pressure and pipe it throughout our houses, what was once ‘living water’ is now dead.
Is it possible that our water consumption is related to the current epidemic of chronic, degenerative diseases that is being experienced in so-called ‘advanced’ societies? Is it possible, as some scientists believe, that the water we drink is related to the fact that cancer, once an anomaly, is now one of our most deadly killers?In the Roman Empire, aqueducts delivered water to Roman homes through lead pipes. Today we understand the lethal implications of the Romans’ use of lead. Could it be that we will someday similarly accept that our old habit of drinking chlorinated water from pressurized pipes was equally devastating?The point is not that we should get rid of our pipes, but simply that the properties of water, whether they are altered by humans or by nature, are greatly varying, and in ways that may have both positive and negative implications for our health and well being.

A Philosophy of Water
Most of the world’s researchers who are searching for the reality that lies behind water see it as being either alive or dead. When water is alive, so is everything in and around it. And dead water leads directly to death. So what is it that makes water alive?

Remember when Genesis says, “And the Spirit of God moved over the waters”? Water’s deepest secret is found in its movement; the way water moves. There are movements that water can make that energize it to a point of consciousness. And there are some that de-activate the water, leaving it as just a molecule, without life. The Spirit of God does not ‘move over’ it any longer.

The subject of water is one of the most immense subjects in the universe, and one of the most important. So if you are becoming fascinated by the Source of Life, you are not alone. And for some reason, this moment in history appears to be the moment of limelight for water. I’m sure there is a good reason.

A modern spiritual exercise with water comes from a Japanese water researcher named Dr Masaru Emoto. His books (‘The Hidden Messages in Water’, ‘The True Power of Water: Healing and Discovering Ourselves’, ‘The Miracle of Water’, ‘The Healing Power of Water’, ‘The Secret Life of Water’, ‘Water Crystal Healing; Love Thyself’, ‘The Message from Water 111, Hidden Messages in Water’, ‘Messages from Water and the Universe’) chronicle his work in trying to influence water with prayer, chanting, music, written words, and pictures. His technique is to test the water by freezing drops of water to create small crystals like snowflakes. These are photographed with a dark field microscope attached to a camera in an extremely cold room. The crystals disintegrate very quickly.

His technique is to test the water first as a control, whether it is tap water or water from a polluted lake. The untreated water, in ice crystal form, is photographed. Then the water is treated with any of the above methods. Sometimes a word is simply printed on tape and is taped to the bottle of water and left overnight. Positive words like “love” and “gratitude” will actually change the water at a microscopic level. The new crystals are beautifully formed and symmetric. Negative words have the opposite effect.

Dr Emoto’s results have not yet been accepted by all scientists.  However, as our bodies are mostly water, it raises interesting questions about how to heal ourselves with prayer, positive words or beautiful music. The technique has now been tested all over the world using words from different languages with positive results. There may be more to water than we thought.

Water as a Spiritual Element
Water is the central source of our beings. It is part of every cell and fibre in us; it is our very essence. Could water be the common denominator that weaves us all (earth, animal, human, and plant) together as one? Is it the ultimate connector? It is awesome and humbling that water carries so many entrained messages, especially when we consider that there has been thesame water, and the same amount of water, on the earth for millions of years. What messages are we receiving from our ancestors when we drink? And it is overwhelming to think that in the past 60 years alone, the human hand has imprinted so much pollution on the water, bringing it out of healthy balance. It is our spiritual obligation to be water’s caretaker and cause it no further harm.

In Tarot, the traditional Suit of Cups is the suit of water. It is receptive, a vessel, and a symbol of the deep, primordial unconscious mind and womb. Water shows us the images, or imprint, of things. Emotions, feelings, and psychic knowledge are all represented by water in the Tarot tradition. Water flows and changes, and it carries away what it cleanses.

Baptism, holy water, and other ritual uses of water are a central component of religions and spiritual beliefs. Water is the great purifier. We wash away our sins, we cleanse our wounds, and our tears bring release. Author Cait Johnson notes in her book ‘Earth, Water, Fire, and Air’, “The human spirit understands water as the Great Beginning.”

Water is often regarded as a sacred gift. People of different religions and spiritualities see water as a cleansing substance. It is a common practice to use water for ridding oneself of impurities – both physical and spiritual – and for purifying objects for ritual use. No other substance on earth bears a spiritual meaning as profound as water.

Water literally and symbolically is the source of life and purification. As such, it also serves as the bridge between the physical and the spiritual realms.

Can life exist without water? 
Water and life are closely linked. This has been recognized throughout history by civilizations and religions and is still the case with scientists today.  Liquid water is required for life to start and for life to continue. No enzymes work in the absence of water molecules. No other liquid can replace water. We are very fortunate, therefore, that our planet is so well endowed.

Water is a common material in the Universe, being found as widely dispersed gaseous molecules and as amorphous ice in tiny grains and much larger asteroids, comets and planets, but water needs particularly precise conditions to exist as a liquid, as it does on Earth. It is most likely that this water arrived from multiple sources, such as comets and asteroids, somewhat after solid planet Earth was formed.   The development of life required this water.

Water possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes.  These properties are brought about by the hydrogen-bonded environment particularly evident in liquid.  It is found that if the hydrogen bond strength was slightly different from its natural value then there may be considerable consequences for life. Water would not be liquid on the surface of Earth at its average temperature if the hydrogen bonds were as little changed as 7% stronger or 29% weaker.

Major consequences for life are found if the hydrogen bonds did not have their natural strength. Even very slight strengthening of the hydrogen bonds may have substantial effects on normal metabolism.  Water’s hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Hydration, Water and Health 
Adequate hydration is an absolute requirement for our health and all active life. Liquid water is the most important nutrient throughout the living world. In particular, we cannot live without it for more than about 100 hours, whereas other nutrients may be neglected for weeks or months. Although commonly it is treated rather trivially, no other nutrient is more essential or needed in such great amounts.

Clean, fresh drinking water is essential to human and other life.  On average each person uses, for drinking, washing and flushing the toilet, about 150 litres of water a day. But to grow just 1 kilo of potatoes takes 500 litres, to grow 1 kilo of wheat takes 1,000 litres, while to grow 1 kilo of rice uses between 2,000 and 5,000 litres of water. To grow sufficient feed for a cow to provide an average-sized hamburger uses 11,000 litres of water.

Access to safe drinking water has improved steadily and substantially over the last decades in most parts of the world, though in some third world countries many people still do not have easy access to fresh water. However, some observers have estimated that by 2025 more than half of the world population will be facing water-based vulnerability, a situation which has been called a water crisis by the United Nations.

Water plays an important role in the world economy, as it functions as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical substances and facilitates industrial cooling and transportation. Approximately 70 percent of fresh water is consumed by agriculture.

Astronomical position of Earth and impact on it’s water

The co-existence of the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of water on Earth is vital to the origin, evolution, and continued existence of life on Earth. However, if the Earth’s location in the solar system was even marginally closer to, or further from, the Sun (ie, a million miles or so), the conditions which allow the three forms of water to be present simultaneously would be far less likely to exist.  Earth’s mass allows gravity to hold an atmosphere. Water vapour and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere provide a greenhouse effect which helps maintain a relatively steady surface temperature.

If Earth was less massive a thinner atmosphere would cause temperature extremes, preventing the accumulation of water except in polar ice caps (as on Mars). According to the solar nebula model of the solar system’s formation, Earth’s mass may be largely due to its distance from the Sun.

Types of Water
Research is indicating that there may be different types of water, such as ‘ionized water’ and ‘super ionized water’.  (The selling of so-called ‘clustered water’ is now thought by some to be a scam.)  Some amazing claims have been made for these newly-discovered types of water, but they have yet to be scientifically proved to the satisfaction of most scientists.

‘Ionized’ water is thought to have one extra electron and to be amazing for its ability to clean the environment.   However a more recent discovery, super ionized water, has three extra electrons in the water molecule’s outer orbit and seems to have even more amazing abilities. If you analyze the super ionized water you will find nothing but water. But if you take an ordinary lamp and simply put the plug into a glass of super ionized water it will light up the lamp brighter than if you plugged it into an electrical socket.  Obviously it is not ordinary water; it is water filled with electricity.

In an experiment in Washington DC, a small quantity of super ionized water was sprayed onto two containers, one containing water polluted with brown waste and one containing water which glowed greeny-yellow!   Over a two-hour period the water in the two polluted containers slowly turned into what looked like distilled water, crystal clear, clear enough for fish to live in, as was then demonstrated.  Similar but larger-scale experiments have been carried out on lakes, with equally impressive results.

In another experiment a small quantity of super ionized water was poured onto automobile oil in a container and the container shaken.  In about three seconds the oil no longer existed in its previous form. In its place were amino acids and proteins which could be re-used as fertilizer and for food production or, in the ocean setting, could be eaten by fish as food. This is impressive for many applications of cleaning up the earth’s pollution, especially oil spills in the ocean. Even old oil spills that have reached the beaches could be cleaned up very quickly.

When super ionized water has been sprayed on huge rubbish dumps where methane fires are burning, immediately the methane fires go out and in a few weeks (depending on the size of the problem) the chemicals in the dump are turned into organic fertilizer.  Soon where there was rubbish there are organic vegetables and flowers growing.

Russia and eight other major countries of the world are now doing research on this water. All over the world they are secretly putting this in polluted lakes and rivers, that are becoming clean right before their eyes. If the properties and qualities claimed for these new types of water are proven to the satisfaction of the scientific community, they will have great potential for cleaning up the pollution of the Earth.

Any measure of a successful society – low mortality rates, economic growth and diversity, productivity, and public safety – are in some way related to access to safe water. 

We are all stewards of the water infrastructure upon which future generations depend.

The human body can last weeks without food, but only days without water. The body is made up of 67-85 per cent water. Water forms the basis of blood, digestive juices, urine and perspiration and is contained in lean muscle, fat and bones.

As the body can’t store water, we need fresh supplies every day to make up for losses from lungs, skin, urine and faeces (poo). The amount we need depends on our metabolism, the weather, the food we eat and our activity levels.

Facts about water in our bodies

Some facts about our internal water supply:

  • Body water is higher in men than in women and falls in both with age.
  • Most mature adults lose about 2.5–3 litres of water per day. Water loss may be more in hot weather and with prolonged exercise.
  • Elderly people lose about two litres per day.
  • An air traveller can lose approximately 1.5 litres of water during a three-hour flight.
  • Water loss needs to be replaced.
  • Foods provide about one litre of fluid and the remainder must be obtained from drinks.

Water is needed for most body functions

Water is needed to:

  • Maintain the health and integrity of every cell in the body.
  • Keep the bloodstream liquid enough to flow through blood vessels.
  • Help eliminate the by-products of the body’s metabolism, excess electrolytes, for example sodium and potassium, and urea which is a waste product formed through the processing of dietary protein.
  • Regulate body temperature through sweating.
  • Keep mucous membranes moist, such as those of the lungs and mouth.
  • Lubricate and cushion joints.
  • Reduce the risk of cystitis by keeping the bladder clear of bacteria.
  • Aid digestion and prevent constipation.
  • Work as a moisturiser to improve the skin’s texture and appearance.
  • Carry nutrients and oxygen to cells.
  • Serve as a shock absorber inside the eyes, spinal cord and in the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus in pregnancy.

Water content in food

Most foods, even those that look hard and dry, contain water. The body can get about half of its water needs from food alone. The digestion process also produces water as a by-product and can provide around 10 per cent of the body’s water requirements. The rest must come from liquids.


Dehydration occurs when the water content of the body is too low. This is easily fixed by increasing fluid intake. Symptoms of dehydration include headaches, lethargy, mood changes and slow responses, dry nasal passages, dry or cracked lips, dark-coloured urine, weakness, tiredness, confusion and hallucinations. Eventually urination stops, the kidneys fail and the body can’t remove toxic waste products. In extreme cases, this may result in death.

Causes of dehydration include:

  • Increased sweating due to hot weather, humidity, exercise or fever.
  • Not drinking enough water.
  • Insufficient signalling mechanisms in the elderly – sometimes they do not feel thirsty even though they may be dehydrated.
  • Increased output of urine due to a hormone deficiency, diabetes, kidney disease or medications.
  • Diarrhoea or vomiting.
  • Recovering from burns.

When you need to increase fluids

If you regularly don’t drink enough water there is some increased risk of kidney stones and, in women, urinary tract infections. There is also limited evidence to suggest an increased risk for some cancers including bladder cancer and colon cancer. It can also lower your physical and mental performance and salivary gland function.

People who need more water in their diet include those who:

  • Are on a high protein diet
  • Are on a high fibre diet, as fluids help prevent constipation
  • Are children
  • Have an illness that causes vomiting or diarrhoea
  • Are physically active
  • Are exposed to warm or hot conditions.

Dehydration in elderly

Elderly people are often at risk of dehydration. This is due to:

  • Changes to kidney function, which declines with age
  • Hormonal changes
  • Not feeling thirsty (because the mechanisms in the body that trigger thirst don’t work as well as we age)
  • Medication (for example, diuretics and laxatives)
  • Chronic illness
  • Limited mobility.

Dehydration in babies and children

Children are susceptible to dehydration, particularly if they are ill. Vomiting, fever and diarrhoea can quickly dehydrate a baby. This can be a life-threatening condition. If you suspect dehydration, take the child immediately to the nearest hospital emergency department. Some of the symptoms of dehydration in a child include:

  • Cold skin
  • Lethargy
  • Dry mouth
  • Depressed fontanelle (a fontanelle is soft spot on a child’s skull)
  • A blue tinge to the skin as the circulation slows.

Water intoxication (or hyponatremia)

Drinking too much water can also damage the body and cause hyponatremia. This is when sodium in the blood drops to a dangerously low level. Sodium is needed in muscle contraction and for sending nerve impulses.

If too much water is consumed, the kidneys cannot excrete enough fluid. Water intoxication can lead to headaches, blurred vision, cramps (and eventually convulsions), swelling of the brain, coma and possibly death.

For water to reach toxic levels, you would have to consume many litres a day. Water intoxication is most common in people with particular diseases or mental illnesses (for example, in some cases of schizophrenia) and in infants who are fed infant formula that is too diluted.

Water and sports performance

Fluid needs of athletes during training and competition vary greatly depending on many factors. So, the following is a general suggestion. Athletes are advised to drink 500ml of water two hours before an event, and up to 300–500ml every 30 minutes during the event (depending on individual thirst, surrounding temperature and exercise intensity).

For smaller athletes exercising in mild conditions, less fluid may be needed. Well-trained athletes competing at high intensities in warm conditions may prefer more fluid. A maximum limit of 1500ml of fluid per hour is advised to avoid the ill-effects of water intoxication.

Fluid retention

Many people believe that drinking water causes fluid retention. In fact, the opposite is true. Drinking water helps the body rid itself of excess sodium, which results in less fluid retention. The body will retain fluid if there is too little water in the cells. If the body receives enough water on a regular basis, there will be no need for it to conserve water and this will reduce fluid retention.

Recommended daily fluids

Approximately six to eight glasses (at least 150ml each) of a variety of fluids can be consumed each day. More than eight glasses may be needed for physically active people, children, people in hot or humid environments, and breastfeeding women (who need an extra 750–1,000ml per day). Less water may be needed for sedentary people, older people, people in a cold environment or people who eat a lot of high water content foods.

Sources of fluid

Fluids include fresh water and all other liquids like juice, soft drinks, coffee, tea, milk and soup. Fresh water is the best drink because it does not contain kilojoules and has fluoride that is good for the teeth. Milk is important (especially for children) and tea can be a source of antioxidants, which appear to protect against heart disease and cancer. Fresh fruit is preferable to fruit juice because it has more fibre and nutrients and less sugar. Sweet drinks should be limited because they add calories without nutrient value.

Mineral water contains salt

Commercially bottled mineral water contains salt, which can lead to fluid retention and swelling and even increased blood pressure in susceptible people. Limit the amount of mineral water or choose low sodium varieties (less than 30mg sodium per 100ml).

Things to remember

  • Water is essential to most bodily functions.
  • The body has no way to store water and needs fresh supplies every day.
  • Dehydration is life threatening to a baby and requires urgent medical attention.
  • It is recommended that you consume around eight glasses of water a day to prevent dehydration.

Check out this fantastic and informative documentary about water from the Spirit Science via YouTube!

Information for this page was supplied by several internet sources.